Dictionary A





Abe Ichiro (1923–)         KODOKAN 10th Dan

Promoted to KODOKAN 10th dan on 8 January 2006, at age 83. Abe was international chairperson of the All Nippon JUDO Federation and has strong links internationally through the coaching he has done in Europe.


ABE KENSHIRO (1915-1985)

Japanese JUDO champion and pioneer. A 5th DAN in JUDO by 16, Abe also studied aikido, kendo and jukendo. He taught at the JUDO College within the Butokukai in Kyoto in the late 1930s and by 1945 was a 7th DAN. He became chief instructor at Doshisa University as well as instructor to the kyoto Police Department.

Abe went to England in 1955 at the invitation of the London JUDO society and opened his own club ane year later. A leader of the British JUDO Council he became a highly sought after instructor; however, because he believed that competition victory was not the ultimate goal of JUDO, he encountered opposition at a time when JUDO was gaining popularity as a sport. In 1970, he sufferd serious injuries in an automobile accidnet from which he had not fully recovered four year later when he returned to Japan.



Lifting hip



To push back the chin (a striking technique int he KODOKAN JU NO KATA)



Upper cut (striking technique int he GOSHIN JUTSU KATA)


AIKIDO ( Ai: union, harmony; Ki: vital, energy; Do: way)

A martial art form developed by Morihei Ueshiba (1883-1969); AIKIDO is neither simply an exercise, a sport, a combat form, nor purely physical education. But it is in some sense all of these things, though it aspires to higher ideals. This is the concept of natural rhythm, a free flow of personal expression that offers no conflict with nature. This expression is infinitely varied, and for this reason its techniques are unlimited. Its techniques include throwing (NAGE) and grappling (KATAME-WAZA), the latter largely confined to joint-locking techniques (KANSETSU-WAZA). In its original JU JUTSU form (Daito-Ryu), consideration was given to ATEMI and resusciation, but nowadays these factors are not stressed. Takeda Sokaku (1860-1943), a great martial artist trained KENDO (swordsmanship) and Sojutsu (spear techniques), he was in teaching the daito aiki system of JUJUTSU, which he taught mainly in Hokkaido and Tohoku int he MEIJI (1868- 1912) and TAISHO (1912-26) periods.

Ueshiba Morihei, a student of Takeda is credited with the modern systematization of AIKIDO. Ueshiba drew upon Takeda’s teaching and his own religious experiences. He built his first AIKIDO practice center in Tokyo in 1927. AIKIDO received public recognition in 1959 when Waseda University instituted it as a course in the athletic department and established a university club for its practice. Since the 1960s AIKIDO has rapidly gained in popularity throughout Japan and in many countries of the world.



Tomiki Kenji, „Judo and Aikido (Tourist library 22)”, Tokyo, Japan, Japan Travel, 1960, 1963, 1966, 1967, 1968, 184p, BLC.

Ueshiba Kishimaru,” Best Aikido”, Kodansha International, 2002, 167p, ISBN 4770027621.

Shioda Gozo (trans. Geoffrey Hamilton), „Dynamic Aikido”, New York, USA, Koddansha International, 1968, 160p,



To set up one’s opponent for apredetermined move or position


AI-YOTSU (division of grip)

It refers to two players with the same grip, ie. Right against right or left against left.


AIZU (referee’s signal)

General term for gestures used by referees to signal a point, or the bell used to signal the end of a match.



Red, crimson, scarlet


AKA TEPU (red tape)

10x50 cm piece of red tape on the TATAMI within the area indicating the position from which the contestant designated „red” should begin a match.(See Sec. INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES,)



It is an open-weight championship was staged annually from 1931. It was suspended during the Second World War (1940-47) and restarted in 1948. Each Japanese prefecture and metropolitan region stages a campionship. The champions go forward to the finals. They are held each year at the Nippon BUDOKAN in Tokyo on April 29. The women’s tournament is held in Yokohama Cultural Gymnasium in April. This tournament has only one open-weight division. Weight distinction is held as All-Japan Weight Class Judo Championship and KODOKAN Cup particularly

Web www.kodokan.org




Watson, Brian N., „The Father of Judo (A Biography of Jigoro Kano)”, Kodansha International, New York, USA, 212p, 2000, ISBN 4-7700253-0.



"All Japan Judo Federation" is the abbreviated name for the All Japan Judo Federation which was founded in 1949. All Japan Judo Federation is the main Judo organization in Japan, and together with KODOKAN, sponsors and supports JUDO competitions throughout the country. These include the All Japan Judo Championships, all-Japan and regional sports events, general and school all-Japan rallies, the All-Japan Police Judo Rally, the Corporate Judo Rally, the Judo Therapist Judo Rally, and Kinshuki High School Judo Rally, etc.
All Japan Judo Federation also supports Judo festivals, etc., as part of its efforts to promote JUDO nationwide.


Web www.judo.or.jp


Kodokan-nai,1-16-30 Kasuga,
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-0003
TEL: +81-3-3818-4199
FAX: +81-3-3812-3995



Sitting cross-legged


ANZEN CHITAI (safety zone)




Blue (green)



Blue belt (2. KYU)



Thank you



Leg. Foot


ASHI ATE ( kicking techniques)

Leg strike technique for disabling an assailant by attacking with the knee, the ball of foot, the toes and the heel. Ashi –ate is one technique of ATEMI WAZA. Unlike throwing and grappling techniques, striking techniques are never used in competition. They are usually practiced in KATA form.


ASHI BARAI (leg sweep)

A sweeping movement in which TORI takes UKE’s legs or feet from under him or her using his/her own legs or feet, and throws UKE ont o his/her side



Foot stamp (kicking technique in ATEMI WAZA)


ASHI GARAMI (entangled leg lock)

Entangled leglock (movement 15 in the KATAME-NO-KATA). It is a joint-locking technique which is now prohibited in the normal practice of modern KODOKAN JUDO expect in the KATAME-NO-KATA


ASHI GATAME (leg lock)

A lock. From the left side of your face-down opponent, position your body over his and hook your left leg around híd left forearm to extend and control his elbow joint. Classified by KODOKAN as HARA GATAME


ASHI-GURUMA (leg wheel)

A foot technique throw .UKE loses balance in a forward direction to his right front corner you pivot and extend your right leg across his right knee and throw him over your leg in a large circle. This throw resembles HIZA-GURUMA. The entry for this the same as in OGURUMA, but TORI’s working legcatchesUKE’s right leg lower down, just above the ankle on the lower shin.UKE is wheeled over TORI’s working leg, which can also sweep back to assist the throw.

Combination Techniques:    àOSOTO GARI

                                                àHARAI GOSHI

                                                àTAI OTOSHI

Counter techniques:              àNIDAN KOSOTO GARI



ASHI-KANNUKI (leg bolt lock)

This leglock can be done when the TORI has succeeded in stopping a TATE-SHIHO-GATAME hold by trapping the UKE’s right leg between his)her two legs.



ASHI WAZA (foot or leg techniques)

A section of the TACHI WAZA (standing techniques) and NAGE WAZA (throwing techniques). ASHIWAZA throws is an essential part of the repertoire of a good contestant. It is a ’big gun’ if they do not always work, they are ideal for getting an attack going and opening up the defence of a difficult opponent. Here the TORI uses one leg against one of the UKE’s legs to throw him/her. Mainly the legs make contact.Techniques of ASHI-WAZA; HIZA GURUMA,OUCHI GARI,OSOTO GARI,SASAE TSURIKOMI ASHI,ASHI GURUMA,HARAI TSURIKOMI ASHI,OKURI ASHI BARAI,DEASHI BARAI,KOUCHI GARI,KOSOTO GARI,KOSOTO GAKE,UCHIMATA,OSOTO OTOSHI,OSOTO GURUMA,OGURUMA,KANI BASAMI,YAMA ARASHI, OSOTO GAESHI, OUCHI GAESHI,UCHIMATA GAESHI, HANE-GOSHI-GAESHI, HARAI-GOSHI-GAESHI.



Nishioka, Hayward, Foot throws: Karate Judo and self-defence”, Santa Clarita, California,   USA, Ohara Publication, 1972, 95p, ISBN 0897500253.

Sato Noboyuki, „Ashiwaza (judo masterclass techniques)”, Marlborough, United Kingdom, Crowood, 1990, 111p, ISBN 1852234911.

Swain, Michael, „Ashiwaza 2: ouchi-gari, kouchi-gari, kosoto-gari, hiza-guruma (judo masterclass techniques)”, London, United Kingdom, Ippon Books, 1994, 111p, ISBN 1874572658.



Head, top



A strike to a weak orv ital point ont he human body


ATEMI-WAZA (striking techniques)

’While the throwing techniques of KODOKAN JUDO are based on those of the Kito School, striking techniques are, like the grappling techniques, derived from those of the TENSHIN SHIN’YO SCHOOL. Atemi-waza are self-defense techniques in which attacks are made to the opponent’s vital points to inflict pain, unconsciousness or death. They are employed only as a last resort when one is in danger of being killed, injured or captured. Striking between the eyes, or to the chest or solar plexus, and kicking to the groin are the most common techniques

Unlike throwing and grappling techniques, striking techniques are never used in competition, due to the likelihood of injury. They are usually practiced in KATA form.

(Kodokan Judo, l36)



In all, altogether


AWASETE IPPON (combined one point)

If a contestant obtains a second „wazari” int he same contest the refere must announce „wazari awasete ippon” INTERNATONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES, 22)



Short mountain punch (movement 9 in GO NO KATA)


AWASE WAZA (point by combination)

When a combination of two WAZARI have been judged to constitute an IPPON.


AYUMI ASHI (naturtal walking style)

A method of normal walking movement in which the feet move alternately, one ahead of the other.