Dictionary Y


YAKUSOKUGEIKO (Prearranged practice)

This is a form of RANDORI (free practice) which is performed without resistance and in a supple manner. TORI performs his/her techniques of attack with the prearrangement with UKE that there should be no resistance. Both performers benefit; TORI learns to develop his /her attack while UKE gets UKEMI practice and learns to develop a “feel” for defence against the various throwing techniques.


YAMA-ARASHI (Mountain storm)

A foot technique throw. This throw the mountain storm, is classified as a hand technique. Using both hands to grip your UKE’s right lapel and right sleeve, draw him/her forward to float his/her balance toward his/her right front corner, then use the back of your right leg to sweep his/her legs in an uplifting motion This throw was the favourite technique of SAIGO SHIRO who was fictionalized as Sugata Sanshiro in the famous JUDO novel JUDO Ichidai.


YAMASHITA YOSHIAKI (1865-1935) Kodokan 10th Dan

The son of a minor samurai he received some martial art training as a youth. In 1884, he became the nineteenth member of JIGORO KANO’s KODOKAN. After three months he earned his first DAN ranking at KANO’s school. After two years he received his fourth DAN. In 1898, he received sixth DAN. He was a member of the KODOKAN teams that wrestled the Tokyo Police JUJUTSU club in 1883 and 1884. He was an excellent instructor. He spoke very good English and wrote beautiful Japanese. In 1903, he went to the USA where he taught JUDO to President T. Roosevelt. Three years later he left the USA for Japan, he attended an important JUDO conference held in Kyoto. JIGORO KANO awarded him the first 10th DAN after his death on October 26, 1935, although he dated the certificate two days before the death.


For Reading

Yamashita, Yoshiaki. (1903, August 26). Letter to Sam Hill in Maryhill Museum of Art collection.


YAWARA (Flexibility; grappling)

The original name of JUJUTSU. For a period of time both words were used, but always referring to the same art. By the turn of the twentieth century, the word YAWARA was no longer in use. JUJUTSU was changed to TAIHO JUTSU, and KANO Jigoro’s modern JUDO was well founded.


YOKO GAKE (Side body drop)

A sacrifice. This throw, the side body drop is classified as a side sacrifice technique (YOKO SUTEMI WAZA). After shifting UKE”s balance to his/her right front corner break it straight to his/her right. Sweep his/her right leg out from under him/her and throe him/her to his/her right by falling onto your left side. This throw develops out of SASAETSURIKOMIASHI. The fall is very sharp, and a swift, effective breakfall is necessary



YOKO GURUMA (Side wheel)

A sacrifice. This throw, the side wheel, is classified as a side sacrifice technique (YOKO SUTEMI WAZA). When UKE attempts UCHI MATA or some hip technique, draw him/her to you and placing your right foot between his legs, fall while turning to make the throw. It is very effective as a counter to most throws to the front.


YOKO OTOSHI (Side drop)

A sacrifice. This throw, the side drop is classified as a side sacrifice technique (YOKO SUTEMI WAZA). It is shown in the NAGE-NO-KATA. Float UKE’s balance to his/her right side, then slide your left leg to drop into your left side to throw him/her to your left.


YOKO SHIHO GATAME (Side-locking four-corner hold)

A hold-down. This immobilization the side locking of the four quarters, is classified as a holding technique (OSAE-KOMI WAZA). It is named from the way the judoist positions his/her body alongside his/her opponent and controls four points on the opponent’s upper body. Though this hold does not at first seem as strong as others, with training and experience it can become a very powerful technique. Nicolai Soloduchin (1955-) Olympic (Moscow 1980) and twice World Champion (1979, 1983) won his second world title with his TOKUI-WAZA, YOKO-SHIHO-GATAME. There are a number of variations on this hold but the one which is in the KATAME-NO-KATA (See Sec. of KATAS of JUDO) is generally regarded as the main one.


STATISTICS: YOKO-SHIHO-GATAME is the most successful ground-work technique in all 797 fights (46/36) 83% of the 1999 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP (Men)



YOKO SUMI GAESHI (Side corner throw)



YOKO SUTEMI WAZA (Side sacrifice techniques)

In these techniques TORI sacrifices him/her self by falling to the right or left in the process of throwing the UKE. Throws in YOKO SUTEMI WAZA: UKI WAZA, YOKO OTOSHI, TANI OTOSHI, YOKO GAKE, YOKO GURUMA, YOKO WAKARE, DAKI WAKARE, HANE-MAKIKOMI, SOTO-MAKIKOMI, UCHI-MAKIKOMI,


YOKO-TOMOE-NAGE (Side Stomach throw)

A sacrifice. It is a (side) variation of TOMOE-NAGE. UKE does not fall backwards but falls sideways across in front of the TORI.


YOKO UKEMI (Side breakfall)

Breakfall taken to protect the body when thrown to the side.


YOKO WAKARE (Side separation)

A sacrifice This throw is classified as a side sacrifice technique (YOKO SUTEMI WAZA). Break UKE’s balance to his/her front and sacrifice yourself by dropping on your back and left side. Throw him/her across your outstretched body. This technique is used mainly to counter UKI-OTOSHI, O-GOSHI, and SEOI-NAGE. This technique is very similar in principle to two throws in the KOSHIKI NO KATA (See Sec. of KATAS of JUDO) – KURUMA-GAESHI and MIZU-IRE. It is also similar to UCHI-MAKIKOMI and UDE-GAESHI.



After studying the TENSHIN SHINYO RYU style under Keitaro Inoue of Yushima Tenjin, Mr. Sakujiro Yokoyama entered KODOKAN in April of 1886.
Naturally adept at Jujutsu, Mr. Yokoyama had both a powerful physique and a diligent attitude toward training, and he quickly became a skillful JUDO practitioner. In 1887, he became a zealous JUDO instructor, taking positions as supporter of the JU-JUTSU department for the Tokyo Metropolitan Police Department, and as a KODOKAN supervisor.
He also trained instructors by teaching Judo at the Tokyo Advanced Teacher Training School, etc.
Mr. Yokoyama died in 1912 at the age of 49. (See BOOKS ON JUDO)


YOSHI! (“Continue!”)

Command given to resume a match that has been temporarily suspended by a “SONO MAMA!” (Hold positions) /See IJF CONTEST RULES Article 8/11)



Japanese-American JUDO pioneer. He came to the USA. In 1917 from Japan, settled in New York City, and joined the Nippon Athletic Club, where he began his JUDO training. In 1923, he had attained his first Black Belt rank and his second in 1934. In 1939 the month before World War II began in Europe, he was made Third DAN. When the Honorable Risei Kano, President of the KODOKAN (1952-1965) Institute, visited the New York DOJO in 1952, he personally promoted Mr. Yoshida to Fourth Degree, and on his return in 1961 promoted him to Fifth Degree.






Japanese JUDO fighter who won three ALL JAPAN CHAMPIONSHIPS (1952, 1953, and 1955) and was second in the first WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS in 1956. He was second to DAIGO Toshiro in the 1951 ALL-JAPAN CHAMPIONSHIPS.



Many believe the founder of the art to have been a physician of Nagasaki a certain Akiyama Shirobei Yoshitoki, who went to Chine in the seventeenth century to deepen his knowledge in the field of medicine. In time, he developed about three hundred techniques of combat based upon the principle of JU (suppleness) as indicated by the name he gave his method: YO meaning “willow” and shin meaning “spirit” or “heart”. This style was used at the police martial-arts meeting by the (same) Totsuka branch against the KODOKAN participants.


YUDANSHA (“Black belt holder”)

A JUDO practitioner holding the rank of SHODAN or above.


YUKO ( yuko, effective)

The referee announces YUKO (a) when a contestant, with control, throws the other contestant but the technique is partially lacking in two of the other three elements necessary for IPPON; (b) when a contestant holds with OSAEKOMI WAZA the other contestant who is unable to get away for 15 seconds or more but less than 20 seconds

(See IJF CONTEST RULES, Article 24)


YUSEI GACHI (win by superior perfomance)

A way of winning other than by IPPON or by the oppenent’s defeat by decision.