Dictionary T




TABATA SHOTARO (1884-1950) Kodokan 10th Dan

Entered the KODOKAN in 1900 and was promoted to 10th DAN on April 5, 1948. He was the third youngest person to receive a 10th DAN. From 1905, he taught at the Butokukai in Kyoto where he trained many new instructors and contributed greatly to the development and diffusion of JUDO. Together with Isogai, 10th DAN, he occupies a special place in Kansai JUDO. He died on May 25, 1950.


TACHI (Posture, position) ..


TACHIAI (Match, face off, confrontation)

General term for a combative confrontation or match, originally used in JUJUTSU and martial arts. It is used in modern KODOKAN JUDO to refer to competitive matches in general.






Standing salutation, standing bow. (See REI)


TACHI SHISEI (Standing posture)

One’s stance while fighting while standing, for example SHIZENTAI, SHIZEN HONTAI or others from which throws may be executed.

TACHI SHOBU (Standing match)

A match that develops primarily through the use of standing techniques (throws) as opposed to one based on mat techniques (see also NESHOBU)


TACHI WAZA (Standing techniques)

Throwing techniques performed in a standing posture, which include: TE WZA (hand throws) KOSHI WAZA (hip throws) ASHI WAZA (leg throws).



Body. 2.Ready posture


TAIHOJUTSU (Body techniques)

A type of JUJUTSU emphasizing armoured grappling and throwing techniques.


TAI OTOSHI (Body drop)

A hand technique throw. This throw is probably the best for a beginner to start on . There are a number of variations, but in all of them the basic action is the same.In this technique TORI unbalance the UKE to his/her right front corner by lifting him/her up on his/her toes as he/she moves forward UKE can also be thrown sideways and when he/she moves backward, but this is move difficult. The UKE is thrown in a large circular motion across TORI’s right leg

Favourite technique of Wilhelm Ruska, Olympic and twice World Champion


Neil Adams (1958- ) Olympic Silver Medallist (Moscow 1980, LosAngeles 1984)

World Champion (1981) European Champion (1979, -80,-83,-84,-85)


Michael Swain (1960 -) Olympic Bronze Medallist (1988 Seoul)World Championship

Gold Medallist (1987) Silver Medallist (1985,-89)

Isao INOKUMA (1938-2001) Olympic Champion (1964 Tokyo) World Champion ( 1965, Open Cat.) All-Japan Champion (1959)

Combination Technique:              KOUCHI-GARI
Counter Technique:                    KOSOTO-GAKE



STATISTICS: TAI-OTOSHI is the most successful technique in all 797 fights (48/27) /56%/ of the 1999 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP (Men). For women (311 fights) 19/9 (47%).



Legett, Trevor: Watanabe Kisaburo, „Championship Judo: tai otoshi and o-uchi-gari attacks”, London, United Kingdom, Ippon, 1994, 64p ISBN 0874572550

Lubbert, Hal, „Insights on judo: The tactics of Tai Otoshi”, Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA, Kodokan Iowa Pub, 1985, LoC.


TAISHO (Emperor Meiji’s third son)

Era of Emperor Yoshihito (1912-26)



TAI SABAKI (Body control)

"Tai-sabaki" (Body shifting / Body control) refers to the manner in which a contestant changes his body position and orientation when executing or receiving a WAZA. The four basic Tai-sabaki (Body shifting / Body control) maneuvers are as follows: "Mae-sabaki" (Front movement control), in which the contestant steps forward to place one foot immediately in front of the opponent's foot, with body at right angles to the opponent. "Ushiro-sabaki" (Back movement control), in which the contestant steps back with one foot, distancing it from the opponent's foot, with body at right angles to the opponent. "Mae-mawari-sabaki" (front turn movement control), in which the contestant steps forward with one foot and spins around in front of the opponent with back to the opponent. "Ushiro-mawari-sabaki" (Back turn movement control), in which the contestant pulls the opponent forward while stepping back with one foot, then spins around in front of the opponent with back to the opponent

There are three major types of TAI SABAKI:

MAE SABAKI (front movement control)

USHIRO SABAKI (back movement control)

MAE-MAWARI SABAKI ((front-turn movement control)


TAKE NO UCHI RYU (Takenouchi-ryu)

A JUJUTSU system founded in June 1532 by Takenouchi Hisamori and currently recognized as having the longest documented history of any Japanese JUJUTSU system.


TAKI-OTOSHI (Waterfall drop)

A sacrifice. A throwing technique in KOSHIKI NO KATA.


TAMA-GURUMA (Sphere wheel)

Special throwing technique of Kyuzo MIFUNE. It is similar to KATA-GURUMA.



The lower abdomen, the center of the body’s KI, or vital energy.



Solo practice, Practice by oneself. Individual exercises in SEIRYOKU ZEN’YO KOKUMIN TAIIKU KATA (See KATAS of JUDO)





TANI YUKIO (1881-1950)

Japanese JUDO pioneer. With Gunji Koizumi, Tani introduced JUDO to England and Europe. He studied the shin-no-shindo style of jujutsu and went to England in 1989, where he gained fame by defeating all comers in wrestling matches. When in 1918 Koizumi founded the BUDOKWAI he appointed Tani Chief instructor. Tani remained at the BUDOKWAI until his retirement in 1937 following a stroke. Toni and Taro Miyake wrote one of the first English-language books on jujutsu, The Game of Jujutsu, published in 1906.


Noble, Graham. (2000b). The odyssey of Yukio Tani. InYo, http: // ejmas.com/jalt/jaltart_ Noble_1000.htm.



TANI OTOSHI (Valley Drop)

A sacrifice. Break UKE’s balance to his/her rear or right rear corner, then slide your left foot past the outside of his/her right foot, or behind both of his/her feet, and fall back on your left side to throw him/her to his/her right back corner

Combination Techniques:        KOSOTO GARI


Counter Techniques:               UCHI MATA

                                                 OUCHI GARI

STATISTICS: TANI-OTOSHI is the most successful technique in all 797 fights (49/27) /55%/ of the WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP (Men). For Women (311 fights) 20/8 (40%).



A type of mattress made of very tightly compressed woven straw taken from the rice plant. The border is covered with stitched cloth. This matting has on average size of 188x94cm, between 6 and 8 cm thick. It was used to cover the floorboard in noble houses and places.

A TATAMI or JUDO-mat answer to the following description: Size:3’x6’x2 ½ ‘ that is, about 2 ½ inches thick and nearly 3 feet wide by 6 feet long, having a vinyl top surface (usually green) and a non-slip underside. They are pushed together to provide a firm, fast and level mat area which is at the same time sufficiently yielding to prevent a JUDOKA from being hurt when thrown. Some mat areas in Japan are made up of five hundred or more of these TATAMI, but for basic requirements an area in excess of 10m square is adequate. For many years Japanese TATAMI were thought to be the last word in JUDO mats. Latterly, however, modern materials have exposed the limitations of woven straw and have shown that traditional TATAMI are only suitable for a DOJO with a sprung floor. Experimentation with polymers and plastic foam has produced a universally acceptable mat; There is cogent evidence that its use has dramatically reduced the incidence of injury in competition, The principal stumbling block to widerspread use of the best mats is cost; for economy many DOJO use rubber or foam undermats kept in position by a tightly-stretched canvas sheet. This system is perfectly acceptable provided the canvas is kept taut and the under mats stay firm beneath the players feet. JUDOKA who train on unduly soft mats risk injury to toes, ankles and knees; They will perform slower JUDO than their counterparts who use a firm surface. (See, Sec. International Judo Federation Contest Rules, Article 1).



Black, Alexandra, Murata Noboru, The Japanese House (Architecture and Interiors)”, Tuttle Publishing, 2000, ISBN-13 9780804832625.



  1. Standing , vertical
  2. Length


TATE SANKAKU-GATAME (Lengthwise triangular holding)

Control of UKE by TORI from the side, in a triangular formation used in ground work (NE-WAZA)



TATE SHIHO-GATAME (Straight four-corner hold)

A hold –down. Control of the “four corners” of “four quarters” of UKE by TORI, in groundwork techniques (NE-WAZA).


TANI OTOSHI (Valley drop)

This technique can be applied when TORI and UKE grip each other deeply in low defensive positions. First, step slightly forward with your right foot, pushing the UKE toward his/her left rear corner. As he resist quickly drop to the mat, sliding your left foot forward. Throw the UKE to your right side, using the power of your arms and body.


TAWARA GAESHI (“Bag of rice throw”)

This throw is much like lifting a bale of straw. When the UKE reaches low around your legs or waist move back so that his head drops down by your lower abdomen. Hen reach around his waist, pulling him in toward you. Spread your legs and drop down on your back, buttocks first. In doing so snap your abdomen forward and lift with your arms, throwing him over either of your shoulders.


TAWARA-JIME (Rice bale lock)

Original name of OKURI-ERI-JIME



Hand, arm.




TE-GATAME (Hand armlock)

A lock.


TE-GURUMA (Hand wheel)

Original name of SUKUI-NAGE



The founder was Masatari Iso who made this school by combining (parts of) both Yo-shin, Shin-no and Shin-to schools. There ware 124 tricks consisting largely of ATEMI and KANSETSU-WAZA. Jigoro KANO, after learning the Tenjing Shinyo repertoire from Hachi-no-Suke FUKUDA and Masatomo ISO thereupon. Set up/his KODOKAN JUDO.



A form of competition based on “man to man” or direct elimination procedure.


TE-WAZA (Hand technique)



TOARE (immobilization)

And old name of OSAEKOMI-WAZA in feudal Japan.


TOBI GOSHI (Jumping hip)

A hip technique throw. This throw was one of Kyuzo MIFUNE’s specialities.


TOKETA (“Hold broken!”)

Call mode to indicate that a pinned competitor has been able to break the hold and free himself. As a gesture ”Toketa” (“Hold broken!”) is indicated by the chief referee waving his hand 2 or 3 times. See Sec. INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES Article 8/7).


Tokio Hirano (1922-1993)

Tokio Hirano (5’5”, 75 kg), obtained Godan (5th dan) at age 19, is perhaps the greatest JUDO technician of all time. He is probably the best known Japanese JUDOKA in Europe. In 1952, Hirano went to teach JUDO in Europe. Within six years, he had accumulated over 4,300 wins.

Hirano revolutionized the order to tsukuru, kumu, kakeru and nageru. This is the current European style JUDO. This is a proven method to defeat bigger opponents, as demonstrated by Hirano's stunning success. Wilhelm Ruska (Holland) 192 cm, 115 kg, was his most accomplished student. Ruska was the world heavyweight champion in 1967 and 1971 and runner up in 1969 (open weight). Wilhelm was the dual gold medallist in heavy and open weight class at the 1972 Munich Olympics.


TOKUI-WAZA (preferral or favourite technique)

Any technique that an individual finds particularly effective and therefore uses frequently.



The Tomiki school of AIKIDO, founded by Kenji TOMIKI (1900-1979)He was a top student of both KANO and Ueshiba, and he taught JUDO and AIKIDO for many years. It is a system of physical education including practical elements of self-defence, and is practical competitively


TOMIKI KENJI (1900-1979)

Japanese aikido pioneer and JUDO instructor. Tomiki studied JUDO under its found, Jugor KANO, and after achieving a high level of competence, was asked in 1926 by KANO to learn aikido under founder Morihei Ueshiba. After extensive study he formulated a self-defense system called goshin-jutsu-KATA. Tomiki had delved into the possibilities of aikido as a form of physical exercise, while still respesting Ueshiba’s spiritual principles. Already a recognized authority of aikido instruction existed. Tomiki formulated a series of extended his system (originally of 15 basic techniques), adding two more techniques to the KATA and slightly altering some of the others; he called in the randori-no-KATA, or techniques suitable for freestyle fighting. He later devised a series in freestyle situations, thereby introducing a sport element into aikido. Tomiki further extended the formal side of aikido, modifying several koryus, or ancient forms, techniques against various weapons used in other martial arts. Tomiki was teaching at Waseda University between 1950-1979 where he was professor of Physical Education. He authored JUDO with Aikido in 1956, which was the first English text explaining the principles of aikido. (See BOOKS on JUDO)


TOMOE NAGE (Circular throw)

A sacrifice. This throw, the whirl throw, is classified as a back sacrifice technique (MASUTEMI WAZA).

TORI lets him/her self fall backwards to the ground (Masutemi), with one leg bent up and placed in UKE’s groin TORI pulls UKE forward as he/she falls backwards, and with the aid of the raised leg and hands sends UKE up and over to fall beyond TORI’s head. Also known as KE-AGE and KE-GAESHI. Shozo Fujii (1950 -) four times World Champion took an unprecedenten third world title (Vienna, 1975) defeating another Japanese fighter, Yoshimi Hara, in the final with TOMOENAGE. Karen Briggs (1963-) British fighter four times World (1982, 1984, 1986, 1989) and five times European Champion (1982, 83, 84, 86, 87) was best known for a very fast YOKO-TOMOE-NAGE. Sumikichi Nozaki, five-times Unites States Champion employed this technique with frequent success.


Combination Technique:                                UDEHISIGI-JUJIGATAME
Counter Technique:                                       OUCHI-GARI


Kashiwazaki Katsuhiko, “Tomoe-nage (judo masterclass techniques)”, Marlborough, United Kingdom, Crowood, 1989, 96p, ISBN 1852232498.


TORI (doer; the thrower)

Is the taker, that is he/she takes his/her partner into a throwing or grappling technique.After performing TAI SABAKI to destabilize UKE(Player receiving opponent's attack), Tori (Player executing technique) throws UKE (Player receiving opponent's attack) down onto his back. Even after the throw, TORI (Player executing technique) does not release UKE(Player receiving opponent's attack) pulling hand until the WAZA is completed.


TSUBAME-GAESHI (Swallow/bird Counter)

A counter throwing technique of the leg or foot category. No classified in the GO KYO NO WAZA.When UKE attemps to sweep away an ankle as in DE-ASHI-BARAI TORI lifts his/her ankle out of the way and applies the same ankle sweep back on UKE.


TSUGI- ASHI (Shuffle stepping)

Moving with one foot leading, the other following



Thrusting technique in KIME NO KATA.


TSUKKOMI -JIME (Thrusting strangle)

A strangle. Facing UKE grip his/her left collar with your right hand and thrust the edge of your right hand against the right side of his/her neck to strangle him or her.


TSUKU (To thrust/strike)

To use your fingers, fists, or elbows to apply sharp strikes to your opponent’s body.


TSUKURI (Positioning; set up)

Preparatory action by TORI against UKE is order to effect a technique. A fitting or blending action induced by TORI while UKE is in a state of unbalance.

For Reading

KOIZUMI Gunji, “Twelve Judo throws and tsukuri”, London, United Kingdom, The BUDOKWAI, 1948, 40p




KANO Jigoro ‘s second teacher of JU JUSU, ISO Masatomo took ill in 1881 and died. Later KANO met Iikubo, the master of KITO RYU JU JUTSU. Iikubo awarded KANO a licence of full transmission (menkyo kaiden) in 1883. In KANO’s time the KITO RYU focused primarily on throwing techniques (NAGE WAZA). Iikubo was already over fifty, he continued to train full time, and he was the most skilled martial artist under whom KANO ever trained. (In his memoirs KANO stated, ‘From Master FUKUDA, I learned what my life’s work would be: from Master MASAMOTO, I learned the subtle nature of KATA: and from Master Iikubo, I learned varied techniques and the importance of timing.


TSURI GOSHI (Lifting Hip)

A hip technique throw. Reach over your UKE’s right shoulder or under his arm with your right hand to grip the side or rear of his belt and pull him forward to break his balance to his front or right front corner then lift him onto your hips and throw him over them. TORI does not have to turn in so deep for this throw as for OGOSHI, nor must be bend his/her knees so much. As for OGOSHI, his/her right hand slips around the back but grips the belt, so as to get a powerful lift. TORI lifts his/her opponent up on to his/her hip rather than just locking his/her opponent to him/her. There are two forms of TSURI-GOSHI, known as KOTSURI-GOSHI (Small hip throw) and OTSURI-GOSHI (Large hip throw).

Favourite technique of Marie-Claire Restoux Olympic Champion and twice World Champion.(left side throw)

Combination Techniques:       KOUCHI GARI

                                                OUCHI GARI


Counter Techniques:              USHIRO GOSHI

                                                TE GURUMA

                                                UTSURI GOSHI


                                                TANI OTOSHI

                                                URA NAGE



Lift-pull action applied to opponent to disturb his/her balance



TSURI-KOMI-ASHI (Propping Drawing Ankle)



TSURI-KOMI-GOSHI (Lift-pull hip throw)


A hip technique throw. Use your grips on your UKE’s collar and sleeve to break his/her balance to his/her front or right front corner, then drop your hips to the level of his thighs then raise them again while pulling with both hands to throw him over your hips. This throw is very popular with small competitors and is very evident in grading competitions, where there are no weight categories and one is expected to fight all and varying sizes. This throw is both in the GOKYO and in the NAGE-NO-KATA.


Combination Techniques:      KOUCHI GARI

                                               OUCHI GARI


Counter Techniques:             USHIRO GOSHI

                                               TE GURUMA

                                               UTSURI GOSHI


                                               TANI OTOSHI


TSURIKOMU (To lift and pull)

To use pulling and lifting movements of the sleeve hand (HIKITE) and collar hand (TSURITE) in order to “float” your opponent forward.


TSURITE (Collar hand, catching hand)

Tsurite" (Lifting hand) refers to the lifting hand that grasps the opponent. In a right natural posture with a right-hand grip, this is the right hand, and it generally grips the opponent's lapel area. The left hand is the "HIKI-TE" (Pulling hand), and it generally grips the opponent's sleeve area. When executing a Waza, the Tsurite (Lifting hand) may be used to lift the back or side of the opponent's collar and to push the opponent's uniform in the backward direction..


TUKU SANBO (1887-1945)

After being discovered by Jigoro KANO, Sanbo Toku came to Tokyo in 1906, and entered KODOKAN in May of that year.
In 1909, Mr. Toku entered the Tokyo Advanced Teachers Training School (literature and physical education fields, specializing in Japanese and Chinese classics) while continuing his keiko (training) at KODOKAN. He withdrew from school in 1911 in order to devote all his time to Kodokan.
He was known for arriving earliest at the dojo for keiko despite the fact that trains were not yet running at that hour, forcing him to walk 10 kilometers from Komatsugawa (Edogawa Ward). In addition to being the first in the dojo, Mr. Toku achieved a perfect attendance record.
He later became a JUDO instructor at Waseda University, Nippon University, and Takushoku University. Although he founded his own facility for training apprentices, he was killed in a Tokyo air raid on March 10, 1945 at the age of 59.