Dictionary R




RANDORI (free practice, free sparring)

The most important type of training is called RANDORI. RANDORI literally means “catching chaos” and is the closest equivalent to sparring in judo. In RANDORI , the students grab each other’s judogi and move freely around the mat, attacking and defending themselves with the various NAGE WAZA techniques they have learned. The goal of RANDORI is to throw your opponent without being thrown yourself. If, however, you are thrown, you just do UKEMI, and get up once again and continue practing JUDO students practice with many different partners, and because each opponent is different. There are several types of sparring exercises, such as JU RENSHU ( both JUDOKA attack in a very gentle way where no resistance is applied); and KAKARI GEIKO (only one JUDOKA attacks while the other one relies solely on defensive and evasive techniques, but without the use of sheer strength.)


RANDORI NO KATA (Free Exercise Forms)

Two sets of formal exercises including the NAGE NO KATA (Throwing Forms) and KATAME NO KATA (Grappling Forms) or forms of free exercise, were created by the late Professor JIGORO KANO in 1888, and they were modified and standardized in 1905 and 1907.


RAN O TORU (Lit. Take Liberty)

Exercises in which the student is allowed to freely improuse.


REIHO (Forms of proper respect; etiquette)

Reiho is an expression of respect for the other person. The white color of a beginner's Belt (OBI) reflects the beginner's pureness of heart in terms of respect for the opponent. The beginner learns this REIHO (Etiquette) in order to engage in friendly competition without arrogance.


REI NI HAJIMARI, REI NI OWARU ( REI: greeting; a salute; a bow)

Judo evolved from Japan's ancient martial arts, and its fundamental spirit is expressed by the phrase, "Rei ni hajimari, rei ni owaru" (Beginning and ending with a bow of respect). 

In JUDO, bowing is a form of respect.JUDOists bow when entering and leaving the DOJO. They bow to the teacher at the beginning and end of practice to give thanks and appreciation to the SENSEI for their teaching. They pay due respect to each both before and after the practice or actual contest.There are two salutions in JUDO; one is made standing (RITSUREI) and the other, kneeling (ZAREI)


RENRAKU WAZA (Combination Techniques)

Combination techniques using several attacks in succession.



Kawaishi Mikonosuke (trans. Jean Gailhat), “Standing Judo: The Combinations and Counterattacks”, London, United Kingdom, W. Foulsham, 1963.
Kawamura Teizo (trans. G. Hamilton), “Judo Combination techniques”, London, United Kingdom, W. Foulsham, 1960, 61p,
Kashiwazaki Katsuhiko, Nakanishi Hidetoshi, “Attacking Judo: A combinations and counters”, Guide to London, United Kingdom, Ippon Books, 1995, 2001, ISBN 09518455 9 4.


RENSHI (Assistant instructor)

Person who has mastered him/her self. This is the title given to an expert of 4th to 6th DAN grade. This rank is technically independent of the KYU/DAN ranking system.


RENSHU (Practice)

Generic term for learning though the repetition of techniques and exercises, generally synonymous with KEIKO.


RENTAI-HO (Physical training)

One of JIGORO KANO’s three principles of culture along with SHUNSHIN-HO and SHUBU-HO.


RENZOKU-WAZA (Continuous combinations of techniques)

If Simple series of various techniques, one leading into the next.


RITSUREI (Standing bow)

For the standing bow, opponents come to attention about 2 metes apart. Then they bend forward from the waist, letting their hands move from the sides to the front of their legs, until their bodies from approximately a 30-degree angle. (See REI)



Holder of the sixth grade BLACK BELT.



ROSS DR, ARTHUR JOHN (1893-1971)

Founder of Australian JUDO. Dr. ROSS brought JUDO to Australia in 1927. He founded the first JUDO club in Australia. He was born in London, England, but he moved to Japan when he was eight years old. In Tokyo he practiced JIU-JITSU and JUDO under Jigoro KANO. He wrote the first JUDO book in Australia (Textbook of Judo, Sydney, 1949). He was awarded 8th DAN in 1968.



This distinctive style of judo was influenced by Sambo. It is represented by well-known coaches such as Alexander Retuinskih and Igor Yakimov and mixed martial arts fighters such as Igor Zinoviev, Fedor Emelianenko and Karo Parisyan. In turn, Russian judo has influenced mainstream judo, with techniques such as the flying armbar being accepted into Kodokan judo. The influence of the Russian system on judo has always been strong since it burst upon the scene at the Tokyo Olympics, and has continued ever since.

For Reading

Iatskevich, Alexander, „Russian Judo (judo masterclass technique)”, London, United Kingdom, Ippon Books, 1999, 92p




Double leg grab. (See MOROTE GARI))





RYOTE-DORI (Two-hand hold)

If technique is KIME NO KATA. (See also KATAS of JUDO)


RYOTE JIME (Two-hands strangle)

This strangle can be done standing or with TORI lying on the mat with the opponent between his legs. In either case the TORI catches hold of the UKE’s collar on both sides thumbs inside, but not too deep, and does not cross his arms. It is very important to find the exact spot for the grip since this strangle will not work if the grip is too deep or if is too low down on the collar. This technique is also known as ERI-JIME (collar strangle).


RYOTE SHITA TSUKI (Two-hand downward blow)

An exercise in the second set of the Seiryoku Zen’yo Kokumin Taiiku. Raise both fists to your armpits, raise up your knees, then punch straight down with both fists. Repeat this movement several times.


RYO-HIZA-GATAME (Double knee-armlock)


RYU (school)

A ‘school’ or ‘style’ of martial arts. Each martial art contains a large number of Ryu. Before the MEIJI Restoration (1868) a very large number of Ryu existed, about 1,000. Most of the Ryu had been created by Samurai, others simply by Ronin (masterless Samurai) or even common people. Most of the Ryu which still existed before the Second World War have disappeared, the old masters are dead and the pupils have deserted the DOJO. The Japanese government revealed about 1,000 Ryu scattered throughout Japan. Some forty-six of these were chosen to take part in a great annual Taikai in the Tokyo BUDOKAN.

The Ryu of combative arts that most directly influenced the development of KODOKAN Judo KATA are: Fukuno Ryu, Jikishin Ryu, Kashin Ryu, KITO RYU, Kyushin Ryu, Miura Ryu, Sekiguchi Ryu, Shibukawa Ryu, Shin-no-shinto Ryu, TENJIN-SHIN’YO RYU, and Yoshin Ryu.


RYUSO (Founder of a tradition)

The founder of a particular school or style of martial art.