Dictionary O





The long sash worn with traditional Japanese KIMONO. In the days before KANO created JUDO, there was no KYU/DAN ranking system in the martial arts. In 1886 KANO Jigoro began custom of having his YUDANSHA wear black belts (DAN). In 1907 KANO introduced the modern JUDOGI and its modern OBI, but he still only used white and black belt ranks. Today in Japan, the use of belt colours is related to the age of the student. Some clubs will only have black and white, others will include a brown belt for advanced KYU grades and at the elementary school level it is common to see a green belt for intermediate levels. (See IJF CONTEST RULES, Article 3/f)


OBI-GOSHI (Belt Hip Throw)

A hip throw performed with the aid of the belt.


OBI-OTOSHI (Belt Drop)

A hand technique throw. TORI catches hold of UKE’s belt at the front with his/her left hand and pulls it forward and up. UKE’s upper body is being driven back and down. This throw is somewhat similar to SUKUI-NAGE and WAKI-OTOSHI with which it is often confused.


OBI-TORI-GAESHI (Belt-grab throw)

An informal variation of for the sacrifice known as HIKKOMI GAESHI.


O-GOSHI (Large Hip Throw)

A hip technique throw. To execute O-GOSHI, you break UKE’s balance directly forward or to his/her right front corner, load him/her onto your right hip, then raise your hip and twist to throw him/her.

   This throw differs from UKI-GOSHI in that you insert your hip low and raise it as you throw.

  • Combination Technique:    KOUCHI-GARI
  •                                                 OUCHI-GARI
  •                                                 HARAI-GOSHI


  • Counter Technique:           YOKO-GURUMA


O-GURUMA (Large Wheel)

A foot technique throw. Get UKE off-balance as you did for HARAI GOSHI, place your right leg across UKE’s lower abdomen, and throw him/her over it. As the name of the throw suggests it is a very large spinning/wheeling action from start to finish.


Combination Techniques:       DEASHI BARAI

                                                KANI BASAMI


Counter Techniques:              USHIRO GOSHI

                                                UTSURI GOSHI

                                                TANI OTOSHI



1, Lunge punch in GO NO KATA

2, Lunge punch, basic technique in KARATE





Okano Isao (1944-)                     Olympic and World Champion

Weight: -80 kg (176 lbs)



He entered the 1964 Summer Olympics while studying at Chuo University's law school, and won the gold medal in the middleweight division. He won another gold medal at the World Judo Championships in 1965, becoming the champion of his division at only 21 years of age. He also won the Open weight class division of the All-Japan Judo Championships in 1967 and 1969, and placed second in the competition in 1968. He remains the lightest ever competitor to win the Open weight class of the All-Japan Championships, as he weighed around 80 kg throughout his career. He suddenly retired from competitive judo at only 25 years of age, and founded the Shoki Juku (currently the Ryutsu Keizai University's judo team) in 1970, where he instructed future Olympic gold medalist Kazuhiro Ninomiya. He also served as a coach for the Japanese Olympic judo team during the 1976 Summer Olympics. He later worked as a judo instructor at Keio University from 1989-1998, and the University of Tokyo from 1989-2000. He is currently an instructor and professor at Ryutsu Keizai University.

He was just around 80 kg, his exceptional natural talent brought him gold medals in all the major national and international championships. He was very fast and precise in throwing (SEOI-NAGE, KOUCHI-GARI) He founded Seiki Juku, a school which attracted a strong international contingent. One of the best JUDO book of the world was written (with Tetsuya Sato) by him.


Best ContestTechniques


Okano style OKURI-ERI-JIME


Best Competition Results

Olympic Games

gold Tokyo 1964 (-80 kg)


World Championships

gold Rio de Janeiro 1965 (-80 kg)


All Japan Championships

gold 1967

silver 1968

gold 1969








OKANO KOTARO (1885-1967) Kodokan 10th Dan

OKANO was born April 1885. He became the 9th man to be promoted to 10th Degree Black Belt after his death on June 2, 1967. He was the first graduated student from the Budo Senmon-Gakko (martial art school) and he became "shihan" (master of martial art) in 6th Okayama Higher School and Okayama Police. His mat technique was one of the best among the JUDO world at that time.




A short quick step used to cover large distances.



A foot technique throw. TORI breaks UKE”s balance to his/her right side and sweep his/her right foot toward his/her left with TORI’s left foot. The best opportunity is when the opponent is moving sideways. OKURIASHIHARAI is ideal in a fast –moving contest but really requires split-second timing.


Combination Technique:             SODE-TSURI


Counter Technique:                      KOUCHI-GARI


OKURI-ERI-JIME (Sliding Collar Strangle)

A strangle. This is one of the simplest and strongest forms of choking, it is relatively difficult to escape from it. In this technique you strangle UKE by applying pressure to the side of his/her neck and his/her throat at the same time used in NE-WAZA (groundwork).

It is also called, KOSHI-JIME, JIGOKU-JIME.



JUDO, a sport in the OLYMPIC GAMES, was admitted as an official sport for the Summer Games at the 57th INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION Session held in August 1960 in Rome. But JUDO was seen the first time in the Olympics was at the 1932 Games in LosAngeles, where Jigoro KANO and about 200 JUDO students gave a demonstration. In 1964 at the first Olympic JUDO event in Tokyo there were 74 participants from 27 countries. In 1964 there were 4 men`s weight classes: -63 kg, -80 kg, -93 kg, and Openweight . Dutchman Anton GEESINK won the first Olympic gold medal in the open division of JUDO by defeating Akio KAMINAGA of Japan. JUDO then lost the image of being “Japanese only” and went on to become one of the most widely practiced sports in the world. In 1968 there was no JUDO event. In 1972 the event was expanded to 6 men`s weight classes. In 1980 there were 8 weight classes. In 1992 the Openweight was dropped and there are 7 remaining official weight classes for men. The women’s event was a demonstration event in 1988, and became an official medal event 4 years later. Men and women compete separately, although they often train together. In 1998 the weight classes were changed JUDO has been a Paralympic sport (for the visually impaired) since 1988.(See WEIGHT CATEGORIES).

British Olympic teams: www.olympics.org.uk/sportallteamgb

US teams:                       www.judoinfo.com/usolympic.htm

United Kingdom



1972    Silver              Dave Starbrook                      -93kg

            Bronze                        Brian Jacks                             -80kg

            Bronze                        Angelo Parisi                          open


1976    Silver              Keith Renfrey                        open

Bronze                        David Starbrook                    -93kg


1980    Silver              Neil Adams                            -71kg

Bronze                        Arthur Mapp                          open


1984    Silver              Neil Adams                            -78kg

            Bronze                        Kerrith Brown                                   -71kg

            Bronze                        Neil Eckersley                                    -60kg


1988    Bronze                        Dennis Stewart                      -95kg


1992    Silver              Ray Stevens                           -95kg

Silver              Nicola Fairbrother                  -56kg

            Bronze                        Sharon Rendle                       -52kg

Bronze                        Kate Howey                           -66kg


2000   Silver              Kate Howey                           -70kg





1988    Gold               Simon Jackson                       -78kg


1992    Gold               Simon Jackson                       -78kg


1996    Gold               Simon Jackson                       -78kg

            Bronze                        Ian Rose                                 -86kg

            Bronze                        Terry Powell                           -95kg


2000   Silver               Simon Jackson                       -78kg


US Olympic Judo Medallists


1964                             Jim Bregman, Bronze, -80 kg

1976                             Allen Coage, Bronze, +93 kg

1984                             Eddie Liddie, Bronze, -60 kg

1984                             Bobby Berland, Silver, -86 kg

1988                             Kevin Asano, Silver, -60kg

1988                             Lynn Roethke, Silver, -61kg

1988                             Mike Swain, Bronze, -71kg

1988                             Margaret Castro, Bronze, +72kg

1992                             Jason Morris, Silver, -78kg

1996                             Jimmy Pedro, Bro nze, -71kg

2004                           Jimmy Pedro, Bronze, -73kg

2008                           Ronda Rousey, Bronze, -70kg





Essen, Hans van, “2004 Olympic Games Judo”, Nieuwegein, Netherlands, Infostrada sport,   2004, 294p

Lyberg, Wolf,”Judo: the athletes of the summer games”, Stockholm, Sweden, W. Lyberg, 1996, 37

Soames, Nicolas: Inman, Roy, “Olympic judo: history and techniques”, Aylesbury, United Kingdom, Crowood, 1990, 253p, ISBN 185223489X.


OMOTE (Front)

First part of KOSHIKI NO KATA, consisting of 14 movements which must be broken down and performed slowly.



Pressure (from ‘osaern’ to hold) immunization


OSAE-KOMI (“Pinning”)

Groundwork (NEWAZA) techniques that allow TORI to pin his/her opponents to the ground (TATAMI) on his/her back while TORI press down from above with his/her body. Here it is not necessary to pin both shoulders to the ground (TATAMI) for any period of time; it is very important to control UKE, Keeping him/her on the ground (TATAMI) and unable to get up or turn over on his/her stomack. IPPON is awarded if a contestant holds his/her opponent on his/her back for 25 seconds. According to the rules as they stood in 1905, it was only necessary to hold down an opponent, on his shoulders, for two seconds – said to reflect the time necessary for a SAMURAI to reach his knife or sword and dispatch his held opponent. (See OSAEKOMI time, IJF CONTEST RULES, Article 13 and 8/6, 26)



Kashiwazaki Katsuhiko, “Osaekomi (judo masterclass techniques)”, London, United Kingdom, Ippon, 1997, 112p, ISBN 1874572364.



OSAEKOMI JIKAN (Hold-down Time)

The duration for which a pin or hold-down persists between the chief referee’s calls of “Osaekomi” (“Hold is on”) and “Toketa” (“Hold broken”). (See Sec. INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES 14, 27).



Referee’s term used to indicate the breaking of immobilization.


OSAEKOMI WAZA (Pinning Techniques)

Mat techniques used to pin a supine UKE to the mat (TATAMI), usually from the side or diagonally, to inhibit his/her freedom of movement and prevent him/her from rising . In the faudal Japan it was known as osae-waza or TORAE, which called be used effectively to paralyze an opponent, whether standing or lying down, and reduce his capacity to operate in combat without causing him to lose consciousness. These techniques were particularly useful in combat when an opponent had to be taken alive and were, therefore, favored by police forces in the towns and castle precincts of faudal Japan. Techniques of OSAEKOMIWAZA:KESA GATAME,KUZURE KESA GATAME USHIRO KESA GATAME,MAKURA KESA GATAME,KATA GATAME,KAMI SHIHO GATAME,KUZURE KAMI SHIHO GATAME,YOKO SHIHO GATAME,KUZURE YOKO SHIHO GATAME,TATE SHIHO GATAME, (See IJF CONTEST RULES, Article 26, and 20/b-c, 24/b, 25/b)


OSAE (“Pressure”)

From “osaeru” to hold, immobilization.


OSAERU (To Hold Down)

To face UKE and hold him/her down on the mat so as to render him/her unable to move.


OSAKO, JOHN (1921-)

Japanese-born American judo instructor, champion, and referee. In 1939 Osako was Kagoshima State Champion.After moving to the U.S. .he won the heavyweight and grand championships at the 1956 AAU Nationals, in 1955 and 1958 he was the 180-lb. champion. He was also grand champion at the first two Pan-American championships, held in Havana, Cuba, in 1952 and 1954. The first certified referee of the IJF, he has since chaired several officiating committees. Osako wrote several handbooks on officiating. Member of Who’s Who in the Martial Arts.See also U.S: history of JUDO in.


Osawa Yoshimi (1927–) Kodokan 10th DAN

Promoted to Kodokan 10th dan on 8 January 2006, at age 79. Osawa is also still coaching at the Kodokan, and is recognised for his support of women’s JUDO. Osawa was known by the nickname Current Ushiwakamaru (Ushiwakamaru was the childhood name of a legendary twelfth-century samurai who was small but quick.)



Major outer


OSOTO GAESHI (Large Outer Reaping Throw counter)

A foot technique throw. TORI moves in for a right OSOTO-GARI. Before he/she has a chance to get UKE off balance to UKE’s right rear, apply TORI’s right OSOTO-GAR


OSOTO-GAKE (Major Outer Hook)

A foot technique throw. This throw is done against a right leg that is drown far back. It may be that UKE has already stepped back and TORI makes his/her attack against that position, or it may follow a failed OSOTO-GARI attack when UKE has responded to the attack by withdrawing his/her leg.


OSOTO-GARI (Large Outer Reap)

A foot technique throw. TORI breaks UKE’s balance toward his/her right back corner, causing him/her to shift all his/her weight toward his/her right heel, and reap his/her right leg with your right leg This throw is very popular among big men and can be used against an opponent of similar height and size. It should not be attempted by a small man on a much bigger opponent.

Old names for this technique include Gyaku-gama, Kaeri-nage and Ke-kaeshi.


Favourite Technique of Yasuhiro Yamashita, Olympic and World Champion

                                          Anton GEESINK, Olympic and World Champion

                                          Wilhelm Ruska, Olympic and World Champion

                                          Hitoshi Saito Olympic and World Champion

                                          Ingrid Berghmans, Olympic and World Champion

Combination Technique:                   HARAI-GOSHI


  • Counter Technique:              OSOTO-SUKASHI




STATISTICS: OUCHI-GARI is the most successful technique in all 797 fights (106/32)

/30%/ of the WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP, 1999 (Men). For women (31/17) /55%/



1 .Hoare, Sydney R., Goodger, J.M., “Famous Judo throws: 2 Osotogari”, London,     United Kingdom, Leonard Hill Books, 1968, 110p, ISBN 034024786X.

2. Lubbert, Hal, “Insights on judo: The tactics of Osotogari”, Cedar Falls, Iowa, USA,     Kodokan Iowa Pub, 1986, LoC.

3. Yamashita Yasuhiro, “Osoto-gari…….

3.Yamashita Yasuhiro, “Osoto-gari (judo masterclass techniques)”, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, Crowood, 1991, 96p, ISBN 1852234903.


OSOTO GURUMA (Large Outer Wheel)

A foot technique throws. Break your UKE’s balance to his/her rear or fight rear corner, then pivot left to extend your right leg diagonally across the back of his/her right knee and use your right thigh as a fulcrum over which to throw him/her. It is much the same as OSOTOGARI, the difference being that TORI sweeps away both legs rather than the nearest one. The fall from this throw is very heavy indeed.




OSOTO MAKIKOMI (Large outside wrap-around throw)

A sacrifice. From an OSOTO-GARI or a similar technique, release your right grip and pivot to your left, brining your right arm across UKE`s right arm so as to wrap his/her body around yours . It is a combination of OSOTO-GARI and SOTO-MAKIKOMI.


OSOTO OTOSHI (Large outer drop)

A foot technique throw. This technique is similar to OSOTO-GARI in that you step behind UKE and throw him/her backward.Instead of reaping UKE`s leg, however, raise your right leg high then bring it down from outside, behind, and above UKE`s right leg, that it descends against his/her thigh as a brace that breaks his/her balance and causes him/her to fall.


OSU (To Push)

To push UKE backwards.


OTAKI TADAO ( 1908-1998)

High-ranking KODOKAN instructor, is one of the Japan’ s foremost JUDOists. He has instructed many Japanese national, world, and Olympic champions: he is also a popular teacher among non-Japanese JUDOists both in Japan and abroad. As a professor of physical education at Tokyo Education University, he is engaged in historical and technical research concerning the role of JUDO in education. His long experience in teaching JUDO to everyone from beginners to Olympic champions – and his contributions to its teaching methods brought him worldwide acclaim.


OTANI, NAGASAKI (1898- 1977)

Japanese-born JUDO pioneer. He England in 1919 and practiced at the BUDOKWAI. In 1927 he began teaching JUDO at Oxford and Cambridge Universities, and in 1932 he became instructor at the Anglo-Japanese Club.After the war he taught the military and police forces. In 1958, Otani joined the British Judo Council under Kenshiro ABE becoming its leader in the mid-196s when ABE returned toJapan. He continued teaching in England until his deaath.


O-TSURI-GOSHI (Large lifting hip throw)

A hip technique throw. Grab UKE’s belt from over his/her shoulder: throw him/her as in O-GOSHI.


OUCHI GAESHI (Large inner reaping throw counter)

A foot technique throw. Ouchi gaeshi is the name given to the technique used to counter the UKE’s ouchi gari

A foot technique throw. When UKE attempts a right OUCHI GARI (large inner reap) before he/she has a chance to apply the technique fully, use your left leg to sweep his/her hooking right leg out from under him/her instead and throw him/her onto his/her back


OUCHI GAKE (Major inner hook).


OUCHI GARI (Large Inner Reap)

A foot technique throws. After breaking UKE’s balance to his/her left back corner, reap his/her left leg from the inside with your right leg so *** he falls backward. It is a ‘light throw’ not a ‘big – powerful – gun’. This and throws like it are an essential part of the repertoire of a good contestant. Even if they normally work but not always, they are ideal for getting an attack going and opening up the defence of a difficult opponent.

Favourite technique of

Katsuhiko Kashiwazaki twice World Champion

Peter Seisenbacher (1960 -) twice Olympic Champion (1984, 1988)

World Champion(1985)


Yasuhiro Yamashita (1957-) Olympic Gold Medallist ( Los Angeles, 1984)

World Champion (1979, 1981, 1983)

All-Japan Champion (1977-1985) nine times

Paul MARUYAMA United States Champion and Olympian

Irwin Cohen Unites States Grand Champion and Olympian


Combination Technique:             KOUCHI-GARI


  • Counter Technique:            OUCHI-GAESHI





Legett, Trevor P.: Watanabe, Kisaburo, “Championship Judo attacks: tai otoshi and o-uchi-gari”, London, United Kingdom, Ippon, 1994, 64p ISBN 0874572550.



Major or large technique requiring a large movement of the body.


OYO WAZA (Applied techniques)

Applied techniques that are executed slightly differently from their original basic forms.