Dictionary J

“Thomas” in Japanese characters

JACKS, BRIAN (1945 -)

He is a British JUDOKA who won Britain's first medal at a world championship, taking a bronze in Salt Lake City in 1967, and gained a second bronze at the 1972 Munich Olympics. He later achieved national fame for his outstanding "Gym Test" performances on the BBC programme Superstars.His victories in the British and European Superstars lead to the creation of the branded computer games: Brian Jacks Superstar Challenge and Brian Jacks UCHI-MATA... After retiring from judo he opened a fitness and martial arts club, and in 1990 he started a company hiring bouncy castles. 


The preparation of a movement by TORI.



Free training, training without direct instruction.






Basic defensive posture


JIGOKU-JIME (hell strangle)

This technique frequently serves as a follow-up to the OKURI-ERI-JIME. In it we control our opponent’s arms and use one hand to strangle.


JIGO-TAI (defensive posture)

A defensive posture is assumed by spreading your legs wide apart and bending your knees to lower your body. This position makes it difficult for the opponent to attack you.

Migi-jigo-tai (Right defensive posture)

Hidari- jigo-tai (Left defensive posture)


JIKAN (time)

Time allotted for a match or practice session.



Support leg





JIRO, NANGO (1876-1951)

Japanese JUDO administrator; past presidnet of the KODOKAN. He began studying JUDO with founder Jigoro KANO in JUDO’s embryonic era and received his black belt in 1884 while continuing a career in the navy, from which he retired as a rear admiral.

In 1938, when Prof. KANO died, the KODOKAN board of trustees unanimously chose Jiro his successor, a post he held until September, 1946, when he retired due to bad health. While president he established a system of JUDO for juveniles, fixed the KATA and self-defense for women, and founded the institute for the training of teachers of JUDO. He was one of the few juDANs, 10th-degree black belts.


JITA KYOEI („Mutual aid and cooperation”)

A phrase coined by Jigoro KANO to define one of the essential principles of JUDO training.

Applaid in society, the principles of KODOKAN JUDO – diligence, flexibility, economy, good manners, and ethical behavior – would be of great benefit to all.









High above the head



JUDO in the wide sense



Outside contest area. (See IJF CONTEST RULES, Article 8 b/2)


JONAI (area interior)

Inside contest area. (See IJF CONTEST RULES, Article 8 b/1)


JOSHI JUDO (women’s judo)

The late Prof. KANO Jigoro said, “I hope to spread woman’s JUDO throughout the world as widely as men’s JUDO.” In the KODOKAN archives, the first girl to enter JUDO class was Sueko Ashiya in 1893. But the women’s section of KODOKAN (Joshi bu) was formally opened in 1926. The first woman to be awarded a black belt in 1933, was Katsuko Osaki. The founder of JUDO KANO Jigoro’s eldest daughter was head of the woman’s section for many years.

Ruth Gardner from Chicago became the first non-Japanese female student to study at the KODOKAN. FUKUDA Keiko is the granddaughter of FUKUDA Hachinosuke the teacher of Dr. KANO Jigoro (Founder of JUDO). She is the highest ranking female JUDOKA in the world (9th DAN).

The first Woman’s WORLD JUDO CHAMPIONSHIP was held in 1980 with competitors from 27 countries. Following an exhibition competition at the 1988 Seoul OLYMPIC GAMES, woman’s JUDO was finally recognized as an official event at the 25th Olympiad in Barcelona, Spain in 1992.

For Reading

Gardner, Ruth B., “Judo for the gentle woman”, Rutland, Vermont, US, Charles E. Tuttle, 1971, 147p, ISBN 0804806608

Harrington, Anthony Patrick, “Every Girl’s Judo”, London, United Kingdom, Stanley Paul, 1960, 128p, ISBN 071538984X

Horan, Ruth, “Judo for women”, New York, USA, Crown Publishers, 1965, 149p

Inman, Roy: Soames, Nicolas “Judo for women”, Ramsbury, Wiltshire, United Kingdom, The Crowood Press, 1987, 237p, ISBN 1852230401

Inman, Roy: Soames, Nicolas, “Practical women’s judo”, United Kingdom, Crowood, 1989, 176p, ISBN 1852232366

Ito Kazuo, “This is Judo: for woman”, Tokyo, Japan, Tokyo News Service, 1964, 259p,


JOSEKI (Upper Seat, Seat of Honor)

Place where individuals of high social rank or seniority are seated according to Japanese custom. (See IJF CONTEST RULES, Article ?)


JU (“Soft, Pliant”)

JU means the opposite of GO or “hard, resistant”, and implies that force is never resisted but given way to and then used upon itself.JU means the opposite of GO or ‘hard, resistant’, and implies that force is never resisted but given way to and then used upon itself.


JUDAN (10th DAN)

Dai SENSEI or O-.SENSEI, meaning “Great Master” is used only a few people such as KANO Jigoro, Funakoshi Gichin (Founder of KARATE-DO) or UESHIBA Morihei (Founder of AIKIDO). After death of KANO Jigoro KODOKAN recognized him with an honorary and unique grade of 12th DAN. Only fifteen individuals have been promoted to this rank by the KODOKAN.

10th DAN holders in JUDO


Kodokan 10th Dans in order of their promotion date:


Yamashita, Yoshitugu (1865-1935) Promoted 10th Dan 1935

Isogai, Hajime (1871-1947) Promoted 10th Dan 1937

Nagaoka, Hidekazu (1876-1952) Promoted 10th Dan 1937

Mifune, Kyuzo (1883-1965) Promoted 10th Dan 1945

Iizuka, Kunisaburo (1875-1958) Promoted 10th Dan 1946

Samura, Kaichiro (1880-1964) Promoted 10th Dan 1948

Tabata, Shotaro (1884-1950) Promoted 10th Dan 1948

Okano, Kotaro (1885-1967) Promoted 10th Dan 1967

Shoriki, Matsutaro (1885-1969) Promoted 10th Dan 1969

Nakano, Shozo (1888-1977) Promoted 10th Dan 1977

Kurihara, Tamio (1896-1979) Promoted 10th Dan 1979

Kotani, Sumiyuki (1903-1991) Promoted 10th Dan 1984

Daigo, Toshiro (1926- ), Promoted 10th Dan 2006

Abe, Ichiro (1923-), Promoted 10th Dan 2006

Osawa, Yoshimi (1926-), Promoted 10th Dan 2006


JUDO (Lit. “the way of softness and flexibility”)

A martial art (BUDO) formulated by KANO Jigoro (1860-1938), began to be popularized in 1882 just as JUJUTSU plunged into decay. As a synthesis JUDO is a mature form of JUJUTSU or a BUDO form. JUDO tuned itself toward physical education and culture. Although originally a means of training, modern JUDO has over-emphasized contests, a sportive interpretation. The founder, KANO, never wished for sportive aspects to dominate JUDO.KANO had studied combat SUMO and a great variety of JUJUTSU RYU; he actually gained proficiency in the KITO and TENSHINSHINYO RYU. From these RYU he built most of his JUDO system, which includes techniques of throwing (NAGE-WAZA), grappling (NE-WAZA), ATEMI and resuscitation, all systematically arranged for study. While toning down the combat elements of JUJUTSU, KANO nevertheless required a study of self-defence situations made in KATA or pre-arranged form practice. These and the SHIAI (“contest”) applications of his techniques were training methods leading to the perfection of mind and body. International JUDO grew out of KANO’s efforts as the “mother school” has given technical leadership to the proliferation of JUDO all over the world.

It is with KANO’s development of the unique ranking system to identify his exponents of JUDO that he unintentionally placed a strong influence on the BUDO forms developing during the MEIJI and TAISHO eras. All BUDO systems have adopted KANO’s rank structure (KYU,DAN), which classifies trainees as MUDANSHA (“ungraded”) and YUDANSHA (“graded”) in terms of KYU (“class”) and DAN (“grade”) respectively.

This ranking system is totally absent in the classical BUGEI forms (JUTSU systems).





JUDOGI (“judo uniform”)

The JUDO practice uniform. It is made of heavy cotton material, and consists of a cotton jacket, pants, fastened by a belt (OBI). In the old days the pants were often quite short, and the jackets quilted in different patterns. Around 1906 was standardized in the form we see today, and similar uniforms were later adopted by many other martial arts (KARATE-DO, AIKIDO /jacket/)For long time, the colour of uniform was white. INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION changed this long tradition by allowing the use of blue uniform in competition. The modern use of the blue JUDOGI was first suggested by Anton GEESINK at the 1986 Maastricht IJF DC Meeting. For competition, a blue JUDOGI is worn by one of the two competitors for ease of distinction by judges, referees and spectators. In Japan , both JUDOKA still use a white JUDOGI(See . INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES, Article 3, )



Introduction of the Blue Judogi (http://www.judoontario.ca/events/articles/bluejudogi.htm)

Web www.wikipedia.org/wiki/judo


JUDOGI KENSA (inspection of uniforms)

An inspection of JUDO uniforms (JUDOGI) conducted by referees to confirm compliance with regulations.


JUDO ICHIDAI (a judo life)

Spending one’s life in the diligent pursuit of JUDO.


JUDOJIN (a judo man, a judo person)

An individual who has gleaned both the technical skills and spiritual growth that the practice of JUDO has to offer.


JUDOKA (practioner) 

A practitioner of judo is known as a judoka or "judo practitioner", though traditionally only those of 4th Dan or higher were called "judoka". The suffix -ka, when added to a noun, means a person with expertise or special knowledge on that subject. For example, Benkyo-ka means "scholar". Other practitioners below the rank of 4th dan were called kenkyu-sei or "trainees". However, today the term judoka is used worldwide to refer to any practitioner of judo without any particular level of expertise being implied.


JUDO KYOSHI (judo instructor)

An instructor qualified to teach JUDO.



A cross


JUJI-GATAME (cross lock)

A JUDO armlock in which the legs are placed crosswise over UKE’s body, trapping the UKE’s arm between the thighs. When the hips are slightly raised, the elbow joint is bent backward, causing pain. Juji-gatame is the twelfth technique of KATAME-NO-KATA.

It is also known as the UDE-HISHIGI-JUJI-GATAME.

For Reading

Scott, Steve: West, Bill, “Secrets of the cross body armlock : Juji-gatame complete”, Roaring Lion Publishing, 135p, LIB.

Scott, Steve, “The armlock encyclopedia: 85 armlocks for Jujutsu, Judo, Sambo and Mixed Martial Arts”, USA, Turtle Press, 2006, 264p, ISBN 188033691X.


JUJI-JIME/SHIME (cross chokes)

Here, strangulation is accomplished by crossing your arms and gripping the UKE’s collar with both hands. There are three general types of cross chokes, the only difference being in the way the hands grip the collar.

1.KATA-JUJI-JIME half cross choke

2.NAMI-JUJI-JIME natural cross choke.

3.GYAKU-JUJI-JIME reverse cross choke.

In the single version, the KATA-JUJI-JIME, you put the thumb of one hand on the inside of your opponent’s lapel and the thumb of the other on the outside. The ordinary, or NAMI-JUJI-JIME, calls for putting both thumbs on the inside of his/her lapel, and the reserve, or GYAKU-JUJI-JIME, calls for putting both thumbs on the outside.


JU-JUTSU (“technique of flexibility”)

General term for systems of combat using empty-handed or short-weapon techniques against unarmed or armed opponents. It was developed by the samurai of the Kamakura period from ancient fighting techniques called KUMI UCHI or YAWARA. Over the centuries, various schools (RYU) were created, each inventing new techniques that were part of the KYUBA NO MICHI. They involved movements inspired by Chinese martial arts. JU-JUTSU developed as a martial art (BU-JUTSU) only in the EDO period, and became a sport in the MEIJI period. These deadly techniques, used mainly by bandits, were transformed into a “sport” by KANO Jigoro, and his JUDO a long with KARATE and AIKIDO, officially replaced the offensive techniques of JU JUTSU in 1922. Also called, wrongly Jiu JItsu.


Nancock, Harrie Irving: Higashi Katsukuma, “The complete Kano Jiu-Jitsu (Judo”, New York, US, G.P. Putman and Soms, 1905, 500p

Harrison, Ernest John, “Judo: the Art of Ju-Jitsu”, London, UK, W. Foulsham and Co., 1960, 1968, 95p

Watts, Emily: Beldam, G.W., “the fine art of Jujitsu”, London, United Kingdom, William Heinemann, 1906, 146p, RS.



Exercises of a “warm-up” nature


JU NIN GAKE (Ten Man Take-down)    

Ten man “take-down” or “one against ten”. A test of skill which pits one JUDOKA against 10 successive opponents.


JU NO KATA (Forms of Suppleness)

This KATA is composed of 3 Series of 5 Movements each. It is executed in slow motion, in acontinuous, supple and linked manner. Usually the performers less strong, women and children. In Japan it is often performed by women. Ju no KATA was developed at the KODOKAN in 1887.


IKKYO (1st Series)

  1. Tsuki-Dashi (Hand Thrusting)
  2. Kata-Oshi (Shoulder Push)
  3. Ryote-Dori (Seizure of Both Hands)
  4. Kata-Mawashi (Shoulder Turn)
  5. Ago-Oshi (Jaw Thrusting)

NIKYO (2nd Series)

  1. Kiri-Oroshi (Head Cut with hand Sword)
  2. Ryokata-Oshi (Pressing Down on both Shoulders)
  3. Naname-uchi (Nasion Strike)
  4. Katate-Dori (Single Hand Seizure from the Side)
  5. Katate-Age (Single Hand Raising)


SANKYO (3rd Series)

  1. Obi-Tori (Belt Seizure)
  2. Mune-Oshi (Chest Push)
  3. Tsuki-Age (Uppercut)
  4. Uchi-Oroshi (Direct Head Strike)
  5. Ryogan-Tsuki (Both Eyes Poke)



For Reading

Fukuda Keiko, “Ju-NO-Kata: a Kodokan textbook”, Berkeley, CA, USA, Atlantic Books, 2004, 176p, ISBN 1556435045

Leggett, Trevor P., “The Demonstration of Gentless : Ju-no-kata (Renshuden judo library) “, London, United Kingdom, W. Foulsham and Co., 1964, 62p, 3217.


JU SHIKI (Forms of Gentleness)

This group of exercises is made up of ten techniques from JU NO KATA (See KATAS of JUDO). Each is performed as in the KATA. The exercises are divided into two sets:

Set 1 : Tsuki-dashi, kata-oshi, kata-mawashi, kiri-oroshi, katate-dori.

Set 2 : Katate-age, obi-tori, mune-oshi, tsuki-age, ryogan-tsuki.


JUTSU (‘true, ‘technique’)

This means an art, a science or a technique rooted in the tradition of a school (RYU). One can acquire it only after long years of training and study. The term applies to all the ‘violent’ martial arts, just as the term DO applies to the martial arts which are not meant for real fighting. Apart from JU-JUTSU, all the other martial arts with the element ‘JUTSU’ in their names include also the name of the weapon which they employ. Examples are Kyu-jutsu, Ken-jutsu, Jo-jutsu, etc.