Dictionary H




Eight, the eight



A holder of the eight master grades: instructor (KYOSHI)






Naked, bare, free


HADAKA-JIME (naked strangle)

It is a strangulation technique in that you make no use of UKE’s lapels or collar, but strangle him/her by joining your own two bare hands together and applying pressure to his/her windpipe. This strangle is very simple to apply. It is attempted from behind the opponent. In the TEN-SHIN SHINYO RYU, which Jigoro KANO, the founder of JUDO, himself studied, used a variation of HADAKA –JIME with the elbow against the carotid. They called it TENGUGATCHI. And the DAITO RYU had a form of HADAKA-JIME applied form the side. We use this technique after such techniques as the OKURIERI JIME, the KATA-JUJISHIME, the GYAKU JUJISHIME, and the KATAHAJIME.






To enter





HAJIME (‘begin’)

The command given at the beginning of a contest by the referee to the two opponents. See INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES, 12, 27.


HAKAMA (loose fitting trousers)

Part of the traditional costume in Japan. Before KODOKAN JUDO students of JU JUTSU trained in full sleeved jackets and HAKAMA.






Feather, spring, jump


HANE-GOSHI (hip spring)

It is a technique of KOSHI WAZA (hip throws). The entry for HANEGOSHI is the same as for HARAIGOSHI, but the working leg should not straighten for a sweep but rather bends at the knee, TORI’s upper leg or thigh creating a kind of platform across UKE. You press your bent leg against UKE’s legs and leaning forward lift him/her up with your right leg and hip and at the same time turn your upper body to the left. Then he will be thrown.


Combination Techniques:     KOUCHI GARI



Counter Techniques:             USHIRO GOSHI






HANE-GOSHI-GAESHI (hip spring counter)

A foot technique throw. UKE attacks with right HANE GOSHI. Hook your left leg around his/her lower left leg and reap it to your right.    


HANE MAKI-KOMI (Springing wrap-around throw)

A sacrifice. It is a technique of YOKO-SUTEMI-WAZA (side body-prop throws).This is an extension or continuation of HANEGOSHI and like SOTOMAKIKOMI should not be practiced on the inexperienced. Start in HANE GOSHI and then push your right arm over UKE’s shoulder as in SOTO-MAKIKOMI. You will throw him/her heavily to your right front.



HANSOKU (foul; violation)

Any action during a match that violates official JUDO rules and regulations, generally subject to some penalty depending on the seriousness of the offense.



It is awarded to any contestant who has committed a very grave infringement, or having been penalized KEIKOKU, commits a further infringement of any degree. (See INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES 27, and 19/5-6)



Judgment or decision in a match. (See also INTERNATIONAL JUDO FEDERATION CONTEST RULES Article 8/13)



Jacket with wide sleeves, made of thick fabric, worn over kimono or work clothes by many laborers, artisans, peasants, and workers. The haori, which has a single crest on the back mid seam,either matches the colour of the KIMONO or contrasts – lighter or darker – with the KIMONO colour. By the time the founder of judo, Jigoro Kano was 60 he gave up wearing a JUDOGI, simply putting on a HAORI and performing his KATA in that way.



(in) all direction

(on) every side



Unbalancing the opponent in eight directions

(1)   back (maushiro-no kuzushi)

(2)   front (mamae-no-kuzushi)

(3)   to right back corner (migi-ushirosumi-no-kuzushi)

(4)   to left back corner (hidari-ushirosumi-no kuzushi)

(5)   to right side (migi-mayoko-no-kuzushi)

(6)   to left side (hidari-mayoko-no-kuzushi)

(7)   to right front corner (migi-maesumi-no-kuzushi)

(8)   to left front corner (hidari-maesumi-no-kuzushi)


HARA (“belly”)

The Japanese word, in fact, is literally translated as “belly”and in the Japanese version of the theory which re-echoes through all Asia , this area is the Centre of life and death, the Centre of consolidation (immanent) and of development (transcendent) of a man”s entire personality



Personality, psychology


HARA GATAME (arm-lock on the stomach)

A lock. It is a groundwork (NE-WAZA) technique, involving the bending of UKE’s arm against your lower abdomen


HARAI (sweep)

It is also pronounced HARAI but there is no difference in meaning. The HARAI sweep is somewhat like you kick a football. The ball is not pushed or lifted on its way with any kind of checked action but is sent on its way with a single unchecked movement.


HARAI GOSHI (hip sweep)

A hip technique throw. Legend has it that it was originally devised by Dr. KANO. But the fact is this technique came from JUJUTSU and SUMO to JUDO. It is used by many big men. Among the users of it have been Akio KAMINAGA, twice ALL JAPAN CHAMPION, and Wilhelm RUSKA of Holland, twice WORLD CHAMPION.  

TORI’s hip makes close contact with UKE’s abdomen and TORI sweeps UKE off balance with the back of his right thigh. ‘I like the particular style of HARAIGOSHI that I do because of the control one can maintain on the opponent’s upper body once the technique is in motion. This way it has to score IPPON.’ Alan Petherbridge, Member of British European Championship Team (1957), individual European Champion 1961.

  • Combination Technique:        OSOTO-GARI




  • Counter Technique:                URA-NAGE



Favourite technique of Wilhelm RUSKA Twice Olympic Medallist (Munich, 1972) World Champion (1967, 1971)

Sumio ENDO World Champion (1975, 1979) All Japan Champion (1976)

Peter Seisenbacher Olympic Gold Medallist (Los Angeles 1984, Soul 1988) World Champion (1985)

STATISTICS: HARAI-GOSHI is the most successful technique in all 797 fights (67/45)       /67%/ of the 1999 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP (Men). For women (311fights) 32/20 /63%/



1. Hargreaves, P.H.: Ross, R.F..: Goodger, J.M., “Famous Judo throws: 1 Haraigoshi”, London, United Kingdom, Leonard Hill Books, 1969, 111p, ISBN 0249439646

2. Rouge, Jean Luc, “Harai-goshi (judo masterclass techniques)”, London, United Kingdom, Ippon Books, 1991, 95p, ISBN 1852235977.


HARAI GOSHI GAESHI (sweeping hip counter)

A foot technique throw. It is a simple counter done against an opponent who has attacked with a HARAI GOSHI but has been stopped in position.


HARAI MAKI-KOMI (hip sweep wraparound throw)

A sacrifice. From HARAI GOSHI, release your right grip and twist to your left, wrapping UKE around you. This throw is most used as follow-on from a blocked HARAI GOSHI.

Sumio ENDO (1950-)twice world champion won the title for a second time (Paris 1979, Open Category) beating the top Russian, Olympic Silver Medallist (1972 Munich) Vitali Kuznetsov (1941 -) with HARAI MAKI-KOMI

A counter-move against the HARAI-GOSHI throw.

STATISTICS: HARAI-MAKIKOMI is the most successful technique in all 797 fights (39/25) /64%/ of the 1999 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP /Men/. For women (311 fights) 22/14 (64%).


HARAI-TSURIKOMI-ASHI (lift-pull foot sweep)

A foot technique throw. The sweeping, drawing ankle throw in which TORI sweeps UKE’s foot and lifts him/her with the arms to bring about loss of balance directly forward. This throw is like SASAETSURIKOMIASHI but is better used when UKE is stepping backwards.

FAVOURITE TECHNIQUE of Noboyuki SATO World Champion (1967, 1973) All Japan Champion (1974)



British journalist, author, diplomat, linguist, and martial artist. In 1919, Harrison joined London’s BUDOKWAI, England’s JUDO mecca, and remained an active member until his death at age 88. He was the first Caucasian to become a 3rd-degree black belt in JUDO, during the mid-1900s. The first Westerner to write prolifically about the martial arts, Harrison wrote his classic, The Fighting Spirit of Japan, in 1912. The book examines the esoteric principles of the Japanese martial arts.



Harrison, E.J. (1946-July). Famous judo masters I have known. Budokwai Quarterly Bulletin (p.16).


HASAMI (basami)

Scissors, a scissor-like action using either the arms or the legs.


HASAMI GAESHI (fastening counter)

Original name of KANI BASAMI


HASAMI-JIME (fastening choke)

Original name of SODE-GURUMA-JIME


HENKA WAZA (change technique)

In Judo, a "Henka" (Change) refers to a combination of rapid maneuvers employed to setup the next Waza, and it makes full use of the Tai-sabaki (Body shifting / Body control) or the opponent's destabilized condition.


The left, left(direction)



Left-lapel hold



The left side.



Left defensive posture


HIDARIKIKI (left-handed)

General term for left-handed person, but in JUDO also used to indicate a person skilled at using a left stance..



Left natural posture.






Elbow strikes (in ATEMI WAZA)


HIKKOMI GAESHI (pulling-down sacrifice throw)

A cacrifice . Grab UKE”s belt from over his-her shoulder and fall sideways to make the throw. This is a technique which is often used to enter KATAMEWAZA.

Combination Technique:      àKOUCHI-GARI





Favorite Technique of Katsuhiko KASHIWAZAKI (1951 -) World Champion (1981) All-Japan Weight Category Champion (1975, 1978, 1979, 1980, 1981) World Sambo Champion (1975)


HIKI-OTOSHI (pull drop)

This technique is in the KOSHIKI-no KATA. It is used when UKE comes pushing or thrusting at TORI. This technique is very similar to UKI-OTOSHI. The difference between the two is that in HIKI OTOSHI the forward momentum of TORI’s movement is used to throw him/her, whereas in UKI-OTOSHI UKE is first unbalanced and thrown.


HIKITE (Sleeve hand; pulling hand)

Hiki-te" (Pulling hand) refers to the pulling hand that grasps the opponent. In a right natural posture with a right-hand grip, this hand is the left hand, and generally grips the opponent's sleeve area. The right hand is the "TSURI-TE" (Lifting hand), and it generally grips the opponent's lapel area. When executing a WAZA, the Hiki-te (Pulling hand) may be used (with armpit closed) to pull the opponent forward or to the side to effectively destabilize him.



HIRAGANA (Japanese syllabic writing)

It derived from Chinese caoshu writing, invented in the early ninth century to note sounds and grammatical inflections of the Japanese language. This “alphabet”, at the time called Onna-de (Woman’s hand), comprised 51 letters, now reduced to 46. It is still used to note grammatical flexional endings and words in the Yamato language that do not have phonetic transcription into Sino-Japanese characters (KANJI), concurrently with KANJI and the KATAKANA syllabary.



Knee strikes (in ATEMI WAZA) Unlike throwing and grappling techniques, striking techniques are never used in JUDO competition or match (RANDORI).


HIZA-GATAME (knee lock)

A lock. Pin UKE’s right wrist in your left armpit or using your left hand, at the same time press your knee against his/her elbow joint to control it.


HIZA GURUMA (kneel wheel)

A foot technique throw. Break UKE’s balance to his/her right front corner. Place the sole of your foot on the opponent “s knee and throw him-her with your upper body. This throw is very similar to SASAETSURI KOMIASHI, except that TORI wheels his/her opponent round him/herself and catches the outside of UKE’s right knee.


  • Combination Technique:   àDE-ASHI-BARA

                                                àUCHI MATA

                                                àHANE GOSHI


  • Counter Technique:         àOUCHI-GARI




Knee joint



West German middleweight JUDO champion. Many times a winner of the German JUDO Championships, he became an international star when he won silver medal at 1964 Olympics Games, losing only to All Japan Champion ISAO OKANO. At the 1965 Europan Games, he was a member of the winner West German Team, defeating Anatoly Bondarenbo, a strong Soviet competitor. Hoffman favors uchimata and seoinage, and is especially strong on the mat.



Head, main, basic


HON-KESA GATAME (Basic Scarf Hold)

Original name of KESA-GATAME